In the 19th Century the issue in American policy in was not the open door. That was never a question. Real issue was whether the United States should follow an isolated a cooperative policy to make sure of the open door. Isolated policy was essentially belligerent? It inevitably led to a pitting of the United States against not one but all of the powers and against the Asiatic states as well. It was the isolation of 1897 following the wreck of the cooperative policy which forced the United States to retain the Philippines, just as the distrust of British an French designs in the fifties had led to the attempt loyal but misguided Americans to seek the appropri the United States of Formosa. As a matter of American flag did ﬂy over the principal port of the island for a year. Likewise today a wreck of the newly established cooperative policy would in the end lead to belligerency, and very likely to still further acquisitions of territory by the United States. Those who scoff at such a speculation will do well to study the past records.