Like its predecessor in this series, Adam Smith and M odern Sociology, the present book is a mere fragment. It deals with a single factor of the social process in the German States. It finds this factor already effective in I 555. It does not attempt to trace each link in the chain of continuity from that date. It reviews the most important seventeenth-century writers in the line of sequence, but the emphasis of the book falls in the eighteenth century. I have carefully excluded the problem of relations between this literary factor and other social elements, and I have purposely refrained from estimating its ratio of importance among the formative forces of the period. Con elusions of that order must come from a larger synthesis, for which the present study supplies merely a detail.